I. PHP file

  • PHP can be embeded directly within HTML ()
  • PHP files have extension “.php”
  • They can contain text, HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and PHP code
  • PHP code is executed on the server, and the result is returned to the browser as plain HTML
echo "Hi there.\n";
$answer = 6 * 7;
echo "The answer is $answer";
<p>Another paragraph.</p>

II. How does PHP work?

Here is how PHP works

  • User makes a request.
  • Server processes that request and use a PHP interpreter.
  • Query database (MySQL, MongoDB) and load other files if needed.
  • Result is sent back to the browser/ client. It can send plain text, HTML, pdf, etc.

III. PHP Installation

To install PHP, check official documentation.

If you’re on Mac, you can install PHP with Homebrew.

brew install php

Run this command to ensure you have PHP installed:

brew list | grep php

You’ll need to manually add an alias as follows:

alias php='/usr/local/Cellar/php/8.0.9/bin/php'

Then check for version

php -v

IV. Syntax

A PHP script can be placed anywhere in the document. It starts with :

// PHP code

In PHP, keywords (echo, if, else, etc), classes, and functions are not case-sensitive.

ECHO "Hello<br>";
echo "Hello<br>";
EcHo "Hello<br>";

V. Comments in PHP

  • Syntax for single-line comment:
// This is a single-line comment

# This is also a single-line comment
  • Syntax for multiple-line comments:
This is a

VI. Variable

Variables start with a dollar sign ($) followed by the name of the variable.

A variable name

  • must start with a letter or the underscore character
  • can only contain alpha-numeric characters and underscores (A-z, 0-9, and _ )
  • is case-sensitive ($name and $NAME are two different variables)
$abc = 12;

Variable scopes

A variable declared outside a function has a GLOBAL SCOPE and can only be accessed outside a function:

$x = 5; // global scope

function count() {
  // using x inside this function will generate an error
  echo "<p>Variable x is: $x</p>";

echo "<p>Variable x is: $x</p>";

A variable declared within a function has a LOCAL SCOPE and can only be accessed within that function:

function count() {
  $x = 5; // local scope
  echo "<p>Variable x is: $x</p>";

// using x outside the function will generate an error
echo "<p>Variable x is: $x</p>";

VII. Strings

  • String literals can use single quotes or double quotes.
  • The backslash () is used as an “escape” character.
  • Strings can span multiple lines - the newline is part of the string.
  • In double-quoted strings, variable values are expanded.
  • \n doesn’t work inside of a single-quoted string
  • Concatenation is the “.” not “+”
echo "this is a simple string\n";
echo "You can also have embedded newlines in
strings this way as it is
okay to do";

echo "This will expand: \na newline";
// Outputs: This will expand:
// a newline

$expand = 12;
echo "Variables do $expand\n";
// Outputs: Variables do 12

VIII. Output

There are two ways to get output in PHP: echo and print.

The differences:

  • echo has no return value while print has a return value of 1
  • echo can take multiple parameters while print can take one argument

1. echo

echo is a language construct. It can be treated like a function with one parameter.

Without parentheses, it accepts multiple parameters.

echo "Hello world!";

2. print

print is a function. It only has one parameter, but parentheses are optional so it can look like a language construct.

print "Hello world!";