Conditional Statements

• if, else if, and else statements
• comparison operators
• logical operators
• ternary operators
• switch statement

I. If, else if and else statements

• if statement excecutes a block of JavaScript code if a condition is true.
• We can add more conditions with else if statement.
• We can add a default one with else statement.
if (condition1) {
//  block of code to be executed if condition1 is true
} else if (condition2) {
//  block of code to be executed if the condition1 is false and condition2 is true
} else {
//  block of code to be executed if the condition1 is false and condition2 is false
}

Example

const x = 5;

if (x > 5) {
console.log("x is greater than 5");
} else if (x < 5) {
console.log("x is less than 5");
} else {
console.log("x is 5");
}

II. Comparison Operators

To compare different values, we can use comparison operators.

• Less than: <
• Greater than: >
• Less than or equal to: <=
• Greater than or equal to: >=
• Is equal to: ===
• Is not equal to: !==

For example

if (time < 11) {
greeting = "Good morning";
} else if (time < 18) {
greeting = "Good afternoon";
} else {
greeting = "Good evening";
}

III. Logical Operators

• the and operator (&&) - both conditions are true
• the or operator (||)
• the not operator (!)
if (mood === "sleepy" && tirednessLevel > 8) {
console.log("time to sleep");
} else {
console.log("not bed time yet");
}

IV. Ternary Operator

We can use ternary operator to simplify an if…else statement.

• The condition is provided before the ?
• Two expressions follow the ? and are separated by a colon :
• If the condition is true, the first expression executes
• If the condition is false, the second expression executes
condition ? console.log("true") : console.log("false");
const x = 5;

const color = x > 5 ? "red" : "blue";

console.log(color); // blue

V. Switch statement

switch statement compares multiple values. It’s another way to evaluate conditions.

• The case keyword checks if the expression matches the specified value that comes after it.
• If none of the cases are true, then the code in the default statement will run.
• The break keyword tells the computer to exit the block.
switch (expression) {
case x:
// code block
break;
case y:
// code block
break;
default:
// code block
}

Example

const x = 5;

const color = x > 5 ? "red" : "blue";

switch (color) {
case "red":
console.log("Color is red");
break;
case y:
console.log("Color is blue");
break;
default:
console.log("Don't know the color");
}